Publications

Publications & Journal Articles

Catalytic Drying Technologies LLC comes from a history of innovation in the development of catalytic infrared heating technology, dating back to 1953.
  • Fruits
  • Grains
  • Nuts
  • Vegetables
Category Product Process Results
Fruit
Apple Slices
Dry Blanching and dehydration with intermittent heating
Intermittent heating is best for thicker slices or drying after blanching to avoid surface darkening. Also good for prolonged heating sessions
Fruit
Bananas
Drying bananas with IR heating
Dries more efficiently without changing color, flavor, and texture. Using IR to remove most of moisture and inactivate enzymes, followed by Hot Air produced best results
Fruit
Apple & Strawberry
Infrared partial dehydration
Partially dehydrated apple and strawberries can be used to make frozen fruit bars. Concentration of phenolic and vitamin C increased in the frozen fruit bars (e.g. higher nutrient amounts in same volume than fresh)
Fruit
Apple Slices
Dry Blanching and dehydration with continuous heating
IR dries and dehydrates in one step versus convention (blanche then dry) two step process. IR has lower energy use, shorter processing time, higher quality, and less environmental impact. Thinner slices did not work too well (<5mm)
Fruit
Tomato
Infrared radiation to peel tomato
Versus lye peeling - similar peeling easiness but lower peeling loss (5.2% - 9.8% vs 10.7% to 13.6%) and firmer peeled product in same amount of time (30 to 75s). NO need for lye or water - less environmental impact
Fruit
Peach
IR peach peeling
VS lye peeling - no environmental impact, less energy. Comparable peelability and peel loss results
Fruit
Tomato
Dry Peeling of Tomatoes part II
Determined that distance of heaters to tomatoes, presorting tomatoes by size can help to improve peel throughput and reduce process time.
Fruit
Tomato
Peeling of tomato - peel loosening and cracking
Verified that IR can help loosen the skins for easier peeling
Fruit
Tomato
processing tomato peel of IR and hot lye
Need to heat to 63-72C for IR versus 43 - 75C for Lye
Fruit
Pears
blanching and dehydration
Pan and McHugh 2004
Fruit
Blueberries
blanching and dehydration
Shi Et Al 2008
Category Product Process Results
Grains
Rice
Drying rough rice
High heating rate, fast drying, and good rice quality can be achieved by heating rice to 60C followed by tempering and natural cooling up to 10mm thick. Less rice cracking as the heating does not heat up the rice but the water. IR heating, tempering (at same temp as rice), and then air cool
Grains
Rice
Drying rough rice with IR heating
Heat rice to 60C, tempering, and the cooling with natural, forced air, and vaccum results in improved drying efficiency, space saving, clean working environment, and superior product quality. Heat applied for 120S
Grains
Rice
Same article different journal
Partially dehydrated apple and strawberries can be used to make frozen fruit bars. Concentration of phenolic and vitamin C increased in the frozen fruit bars (e.g. higher nutrient amounts in same volume than fresh)
Category Product Process Results
Nuts
Almonds
Dry roasting and pasteurization
Results indicate heating the almond with IR and then continue with hot air for best results to not only roast but also pasteurize as required
Nuts
Almonds
Infrared pasteurization of raw almonds
Heating almond to 109C followed with 1 hr cooling yielded best pasteurization effect. IR and hot air combined not only pasteurized but also reduced drying time
Nuts
Walnuts
Infrared pre-drying and dry dehulling
7% moisture reduction in 240s of IR. 180S followed by hot air have no impact on final product. Dry Dehulling reduces energy use in transportation as well as water use. Reduces drying time from 24H
Nuts
Almonds
Shelf life of IR roasted almonds versus Hot Air
IR and Hot air roasting can reduce time by 30 to 70% and meet pasteurization requirements. The almonds had similar shelf life as traditional hot air roasted. IR could save money because it can reduce total roasting time.
Category Product Process Results
Vegetables
French Fries
Blanching – comparison between IR & water
IR blanched in 200s versus 16 minute by hot water. The final IR blanched fries had less oil (more than 30% less) than water blanched. Similar energy usage
Vegetables
Carrots
Dry blanching and dehydration
IR can not only dry but also blanch to reduce the steps needed. No impact to taste or color.
Vegetables
French Fries
Infrared dry-blanching for lower calories
Blanching with IR reduced the amount of oil, which means lower calories. Panelists indicated the taste was of IR blanched fries were better
Vegetables
Corn
blanching and dehydration
Pan and McHugh 2004
Vegetables
Onion
blanching and dehydration
Gabel Et Al 2006
Vegetables
Tea
drying of tea
Improves the flavor and leaves the chemical compounds in the tea intact.